What Is Earthenware Clay Made Of? (Understanding The Raw Materials)




Key Findings

  • Earthenware is made of natural materials. 
  • It is one of the oldest materials used in pottery.
  • Earthenware is still very popular among people who love crafting. 

When I worked on my clay project the last semester. At that time I gripped myself in a question, that is: what is earthenware clay made of? And I found it in my search engine and also discussed it with my faculty. After a long session and analysis, I discover some interesting things.

What Is Earthenware Clay Made Of

Earthenware is a type of ceramic made from clay and other natural materials. Earthenware is generally fired at lower temperatures than other types of ceramics. 

There are so many key things in earthenware. In this article, we will discover all of the things about earthenware. So, without any delay, let’s discuss the following:

What Is Earthenware Clay Made Of Primary Components

What Is Earthenware Clay Made Of Primary Components

Earthenware clay is primarily composed of the following components:


  • Clay is the main binding component in earthenware 
  • Clay provides plasticity.
  • Generally, the clay used includes ball clays, fire clay & kaolin clays.

Silica And Flux

  • In my analyses, I found out that Silica makes up the majority of most clays.
  • Fluxes act like feldspar; they start melting at lower firing temperatures.

Non-Plastic Ingredients

  • Nonplastic ingredients like sand, ground-up fired clay(grog). And,
  • Crushed shells can be added to modify the plasticity and working properties of the clay.

Clay Minerals

  • Kaolinite, illite & smectite make the clay easy to mold.
  • Kaolinite, illite & smectite also make to stick together.
  • When the clay gets dry or heated up, kaolinite, illite & smectite forcibly join up your projects. Isn’t it the magic happening in pottery? What you think!

Coloration And Composition Variations

In my opinion, coloration and composition variations play a crucial role in the aesthetics and functionality of the final product. Earthenware is a type of ceramic pottery, and it is fired at relatively low temperatures.


between 1,000 and 1,150 degrees Celsius. Here are some factors that contribute to coloration and composition variations in earthenware:

  • Earthenware color depends on the type of clay you use.
  • Different clays have a mineral that makes your earthenware different color like red, brown, cream, or buff.
  • My faculty suggested me to achieve one desired color to add oxides. And really, it gives me magical pigments to clay to get a specific color.
  • The way you bake your earthenware also matters in changing color.
  • There are so many techniques people use in their creativity.

Influence On Color And Properties

The presence of iron influences the properties of earthenware.Having different amounts of iron results in differences in color and durability.

The high amount of iron causes a reddish color, and the lower amount causes a light color to the clay. Iron also affects the number of pores in the clay and acts as a flux during firing, lowering the melting point of silica. Which results in stronger bonding between particles. 

Terracotta Tones And Characteristics

“Terra cotta” is an Italian word meaning baked earth. Generally, it has a natural reddish-brown color. Resembling the richness of iron over the centuries, people from different parts of the world have engraved their culture and many other things in terracottas. Even the ancient form of a different modern language, such as Urdu, Hindi, Bangla, etc, is terracotta.

Now, the questions that arise in your mind are: what is terracotta clay made of?

Terracotta clay is typically made of natural clay deposits rich in iron oxide. The clay may also contain other minerals such as quartz, feldspar, and mica.

Characteristics Of Terracotta:

  1. Reddish brown in color, which means the clay is high in iron oxide.
  2. Made from red earthenware
  3. Have a rough texture
  4. Durable and not so fragile. ( That is the reason why we find terracotta from centuries ago,

White Earthenware Vs. Red Earthenware

White Earthenware Vs. Red Earthenware
Light or off-whiteRedsih brown in color
Contains kaolin, ball clay, and other materialsContans clay that is rich in iron oxide
More porous and less durableLess porous and more durable
Used for decorative items, low-fire clay, pottery, etcWidely used for pottery, tiles, and items of various functions like terra cotta item, flower pots, etc

Iron Content Differences

There are a lot of types of earthenware across the glove, and each of them contains iron at different ratios and amounts. I will discuss three of them below.

White Earthenware

  • white clay earthenware contains very little iron. 
  • This gives the clay a light or off-.white color 
  • The clay remains light even after firing, which makes it suitable for various further decorations.

Red Earthenware

  • Red earthenware contains a high amount of iron. 
  • Resulting in reddish brown, less porous clay. 
  • The finished product is much more durable. 
  • As a result, red earthenware is very much suitable for items that require high durability.

Creamware or Lead-Glazed Earthenware

  • Has a low amount of iron, like white earthenware, and looks cream in color.
  • Has a cream color glaze.
  • Used widely for its unique color.

Impact On Color And Glazing

  • The red earthenware turns dark red after firing at low temperatures and blackish when fired at high temperatures. 
  • The finished product gives less glaze. 
  • White earthenware clay products are very light in color. 
  • White earthenware products are more shiny and glazy. 
  • Its light color will allow you to decorate it to your heart’s content.

Historical Significance Of Ingredients

Over the 18th century, earthenware like terracotta has played a significant role in human history. If you are thinking is natural clay earthenware? Then you are right. Yes, natural clay can be used to make earthenware

Historical Significance Of Ingredients

The historical significance of earthenware is visible in various sectors of society as:

1. Practical Use

Earthenware has been used to create various cookware, storage containers, etc, for thousands of years.

2. Culture

Many artifacts and jewelry are made out of earthen clay and have been used for different ceremonies and rituals.

3. Business

Earthenware products are being traded among people in exchange for currency or other products from a long time ago.

4. Artistic Expression

For the decoration of the home & temples, many items can be found across the glove that is made out of earthen clay. Are you thinking about what is earthenware clay used for. Here are some Earthenware examples:

  • Plant earthenware pots
  • Tableware
  • Decorative Tiles
  • Figurines and Sculptures
  • Cookware
  • Candle Holders
  • Vases and Urns
  • Artisanal Pottery

5. Ceramic Evaluation:

It was the earthenware products that people kept experimenting on more durable, resulting in the discovery of ceramics. Are you thinking about what is ceramic clay made of? Ceramic clay is primarily composed of clay minerals such as kaolinite, silica, and feldspar.

Traditional Earthenware Recipes

Gather up the earthenware and that’s all you need for the recipes. Once you have it, feel free to read along. 

Steps That You Have To Follow:

1. Clean The Clay

 Make sure your clay is clean. 

2. Mixing It Up

Knead the clay really well. This helps it be smooth and not have air bubbles.

Making Things:

1. By Hand Or On A Wheel

Shape your clay however you want. You can use your hands or a spinning wheel.

2. Let it Dry

 Leave your creation to dry slowly. Slow drying is good, so it doesn’t crack.

Cooking Time:

1. First Bake

Bake your dried clay in a low-temperature oven (about 900 to 1000 degrees Celsius). First, baking makes it ready for the next step.

2. Adding Color (If You Want)

If you want colors, put on some special paint and also use glaze.

3. Final Bake

Put it back in the oven for another round at a higher temperature (around 1000 to 1100 degrees Celsius). This makes the colors stick and gives it a nice finish.


Now you have got your traditional earthenware! People love it not just because it’s useful, but because it carries on traditions from a long time ago.

Firing Process And Temperature Considerations

You learned what is earthenware clay made of. Now, you might know the firing process is a crucial step in creating ceramic pieces. Let’s discuss the firing process and its temperature considerations.

Firing Process:

1. Bisque Firing

The first firing, known as bisque firing, is essential to prepare the clay for glazing. It typically occurs at a lower temperature range, usually between 900 to 1000 degrees Celsius. This firing removes chemically combined water from the clay, making it more porous and ready for glaze application.

2. Glaze Firing

The second firing, or glaze firing. It takes place at a higher temperature. Typically between 1000 to 1100 degrees Celsius. This firing melts the glaze, fusing it to the pottery surface and creating the final appearance.

Temperature Considerations:

1. Bisque Firing Temperature

The bisque firing temperature is chosen to ensure that the clay becomes rigid and porous. This allows the clay to absorb the glaze in the next firing.

2. Glaze Firing Temperature

Different glazes have different temperature ranges at which they mature or achieve the desired appearance. It’s crucial to match the glaze firing temperature with the characteristics of the glaze.

3. Cone Values

The firing temperature is often measured using cone values. In my analyses, Cones are pyrometric devices placed in the kiln, and they bend or deform at specific temperatures. The selection of cone values depends on the type of clay, glaze, and the desired outcome.

4. Cooling Rate

The rate at which the kiln cools after reaching the peak temperature is also important. Controlled cooling helps prevent thermal shock, cracking, and undesirable effects on the glaze and clay.

5. Oxidation Or Reduction Atmosphere

 The firing atmosphere, whether oxidizing (with sufficient oxygen) or reducing (with limited oxygen), can influence the final appearance of the pottery. Some glazes and clays exhibit different colors and effects under specific atmospheric conditions.

6. Special Considerations

Some special techniques, like raku firing, involve rapid heating and cooling processes to achieve unique surface effects. In these cases, careful temperature control is crucial for success.

Differences From Other Clay Types

Various types of clays are available, each with unique characteristics and applications. Let’s explore the differences between earthenware clay and other common clay types:

Differences From Other Clay Types

You can learn about earthenware vs stoneware clay & earthenware vs porcelain clay. It will also help you to understand what is the difference between earthenware and clay?

Earthenware ClayStoneware ClayPorcelain Clay
Fired at relatively low temperatures,Fired at higher temperatures,Fired at very high temperatures,
Typically between 900 to 1100 degrees Celsius.Usually between 1180 to 1300 degrees Celsius.Typically above 1300 degrees Celsius.
More porous compared to higher-fired claysLess porous than earthenwareNon-porous and vitrified,
Allowing for better moisture absorption and regulating plant pots effectively.Resulting in a denser and less absorbent final product.Making it extremely smooth and waterproof to liquids.
Often has warm, earthy tones, like red, brown, or buff, depending on the iron content.Wide range of colors, and it often takes on the characteristics of the glaze used.Typically white or translucent, allowing for intricate and delicate designs.
Earthenware usesfunctional pottery, decorative items, and traditional ceramics. Popular for plant pots and everyday tableware.Common for dinnerware, cookware, and decorative items. Known for its durability and suitability for functional pieces.Delicate pottery clay and decorative items. Highly valued for its refined appearance.

Frequently Asked Questions

What Is Stoneware Clay Made Of?

Stoneware clay is primarily composed of clay minerals, such as kaolinite, ball clay, and feldspar, along with silica.

Where Is Earthenware Clay Found?

Earthenware clay is naturally found in various locations worldwide, typically in riverbanks, quarries, or areas with geological deposits rich in clay minerals like kaolinite and ball clay.

How To Pronounce Earthenware?

The word “earthenware” is pronounced as “UR-thun-wair.”

What Is Earthenware Clay Best For?

Earthenware clay is best for crafting pottery, plant pots, tableware, decorative tiles, artisanal pottery, candle holders, vases, urns, and certain types of cookware.

What Is The Difference Between Earthenware And Pottery?

Earthenware is a type of pottery made from porous clay fired at lower temperatures, while pottery encompasses a broader category of ceramic objects, including earthenware, stoneware, porcelain, and more.


In my exploration journey of what is earthenware clay made of. We discover the history of earthenware. What is earthenware made of, the firing process, coloration, and composition variations, and the step-by-step eathwere recipes & so many tips and tricks. So, what are you waiting for start your earthwere journey today!

About the author

Written By

William Prince

William Prince

Meet William Prince!

With over 20 years of ceramic artistry experience, William Prince is not just a skilled potter; he’s a passionate guide to your pottery journey. William holds a Fine Arts degree specialized in pottery and he was also nurtured under the guidance of renowned potters. With over two decades of experience, he seamlessly blends tradition with contemporary aesthetics.

William’s inspiration stems from nature’s imperfections, translating them into unique, organic pottery pieces. As a patient and warm-hearted teacher, he’s known for conducting pottery workshops and classes, nurturing talents with his expertise. Join William on “fishingflora.com” and let his mastery inspire your own pottery adventure. Uncover the magic of crafting pottery with a trusted mentor who’s dedicated to both the art and the artist.

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