How To Fire Stoneware Clay? (A Comprehensive Guide)




One of the most durable and widely used clay is stoneware clay. People have been using this clay for centuries for its durable characteristics. Stoneware is mostly popular for making pottery items. But you can make any sculpture or craft anything you wish out of stoneware. 

How To Fire Stoneware Clay

One of the most important tasks while making stoneware crafts is firing it perfectly. Many people keep asking how to fire stoneware clay. 

One thing to keep in mind is that stoneware requires high temperatures for smooth firing and smooth texture. Today, I will tell you how you should fire the stoneware clay. So that whenever you fire your stoneware clay you get a fine piece of art.

How To Fire Stoneware Clay?

Stoneware clay is a clay that is fired at high temperatures. As a result, its durability is more than earthenware durability, not only earthenware but also other types of clay. Here is a short explanation of how to fire clay in a kiln.

Fire Stoneware Clay

1. To fire your stoneware, first you need some preparation, like arranging important materials and then ensuring your stoneware clay pieces are dry before firing.

2. Then, Place the dried clay pieces in a kiln and gradually heat them.

3. Once your clay body has cooled, apply glazes. There are many type of glazes. You can use any kind of glaze also, you can use earthenware glaze on stoneware. Then, allow the glaze to dry completely.

4. Load the glazed pieces into the kiln and fire them to a higher temperature. And creating a durable, waterproof finish.

5. After reaching the desired temperature, allow the kiln to cool slowly to room temperature.

6. Carefully remove the fired pieces when the kiln has cooled. After cooling down your clay, you can sand it.

The Importance Of Proper Firing Of Stoneware Clay

Stoneware clay is a popular choice for pottery and sculpture due to its durability and versatility. However, the process of firing stoneware clay is crucial for the  quality of the product. 

The Importance Of Proper Firing Of Stoneware Clay

As we know, stoneware needs to fore high temperatures; for this reason, it is better if you choose kiln. Are you thinking What is the firing temperature for stoneware clay? Firing temperature between 1200-1300 °C (2192-2372 °F. Proper firing of stoneware clay is important for several reasons.

  • The primary reason for firing stoneware clay properly is to increase its strength. Stoneware doesn’t affect thermal shock. It makes it much harder and more durable than unfired or low-fire clays.
  • Properly fired stoneware becomes vitrified. That means it has been transformed into glass-like.
  • Firing also affects your clay particles color and texture of the finished piece.
  • For stoneware pieces that are glazed, proper firing ensures that the glaze adheres correctly to the surface.
  • It also prevents easily cracking or peeling off over time.
  • If not properly fired your clay at high enough temperatures (usually between 1200°C and 1300°C), harmful bacteria could survive within. That will affect your health. If you choose your clay for cooking, then you can season your clay in the same way as earthenware seasoning.
  • Properly fired ceramic material will last longer.
  • Well-fired ceramics have higher market value due to their superior quality.

Many of the people among us want to know how to fire clay at home.  There are also many options to fire clay at home, like (pit firing, barrel firing, saggar firing, and bonfire firing). These are some processes of how to fire pottery without a kiln.

Are you curious about How to fire clay in an oven or can you fire clay in an oven? You can also have stoneware baked in the oven. Read now: A comprehensive guide to baking stoneware in the oven.

Step-By-Step Guide To Fire Stoneware Clay

Here is the step-by-step guide to fire stoneware clay.

Step-By-Step Guide To Fire Stoneware Clay

Step #1: Gather Your Materials

Before you start, make sure you have all the necessary equipment. This includes:

  • Stoneware clay
  • A kiln (a special oven for firing clay)
  • Kiln furniture (kiln shelves and posts)
  • Kiln wash or shelf paper
  • Pyrometric cones (to measure the temperature inside the kiln)
  • Pottery tools for shaping and finishing your pieces
  • Safety gear such as gloves, goggles, and a dust mask

Step #2: Prepare Your Clay

Start by kneading your stoneware clay to remove any air bubbles. Once done, shape your clay into whatever form you desire using your pottery tools.

Step #3: Dry Your Clay 

Allow your shaped clay to dry completely. This can take from a few hours to several days, depending on the size of the piece. The piece should be dry before it goes into the kiln.

Step #4: Load Your Kiln 

Before loading your clay, apply kiln wash or shelf paper on the shelves of your kiln to prevent sticking. Then, carefully place each piece on a shelf and make sure to have enough space around it.

Step #5: Set Up Pyrometric Cones 

Place pyrometric cones so that you can monitor them during firing. These cones will bend at specific temperatures, indicating when it’s time to either increase or decrease heat.

Step #6: Start Firing 

Start firing according to the manufacturer’s instructions for stoneware clay, stoneware firing temperature between 1200-1300 °C (2192-2372 °F. Then, slowly cooling down. It is also the glaze firing temperature. Otherwise, the earthenware glaze firing temperature is 1700°F to 2100°F (925°C to 1150°C). You have to know  how to fire earthenware clay without a kiln for a better firing start.

Step #7: Monitor The Firing 

Keep an eye on your kiln during firing. Check the pyrometric and ensure the right temperatures.

Step #8: Cool Down 

Once the firing is complete, allow your kiln to cool down naturally. This can take up to a day or more. Do not open the kiln while it’s still hot. Because it could cause your pottery to crack.

Step #9: Unload Your Kiln

After the kiln has completely cooled, carefully unload your pottery pieces.

If you are looking at how to fire ceramic clay? Then, you can follow the same process.

Safety Precautions And Tips

Here are some safety tips:

Safety Precautions And Tips

1. Wear Protective Gear: 

Always wear safety glasses to protect your eyes from flying debris and dust. Use heat-resistant gloves when handling hot stoneware.

2. Ventilation: 

Ensure that the area where you are firing stoneware is well-ventilated.

3. Use Kiln Safely:

Make sure the kiln is in good working condition before use. YOu shouldn’t leave your kiln while it’s firing. Because it can reach extremely high temperatures and pose a fire risk. 

4. Keep Flammable Items Away: 

Keep flammable materials away from the kiln or firing area to prevent accidental fires.

5. Cool Down Period: 

Before handling, allow sufficient time for the stoneware to cool down.

6. Proper Training: 

If you’re new to firing stoneware, get proper training or guidance from an experienced person.

7. Regular Maintenance Of Equipment: 

Regularly check and maintain your equipment, including the kiln and any tools used in the process, ensuring they are safe for use at all times.

8. Use Lead-Free Glazes: 

If possible, use lead-free glazes.

9. Cleanliness: 

Keep your workspace clean. Clay dust can be harmful to you.

Frequently Asked Questions?

Do You Have To Fire Stoneware Clay?

Yes, stoneware clay must be fired to achieve its desired hardness, durability, and aesthetic qualities.

What Cone Do You Fire Stoneware Clay?

Stoneware clay is typically fired to Cone 5 or Cone 6, with a temperature range of approximately 2165°F to 2232°F (1185°C to 1222°C).

How Long Does A Stoneware Firing Take?

A stoneware firing typically takes about 10 to 14 hours, depending on the size and thickness of the fired pieces.

Can You Fire Stoneware In The Oven?

You can, but it is not good at all. As we know, stoneware is a high-firing clay. So It will be a good choice for you if you choose Klin or electric kilns for firing.


Stoneware clay requires an average temperature of 1200-1300 degrees Celsius. You need a kiln to produce such a temperature and need to make sure that the clay dries evenly. Otherwise, it might end up leaving a crack on your beautiful piece of pottery or sculpture.

I hope that now the question of how to fire stoneware clay has been clarified to all of you. Now it’s time to give it a try and show your friends and family the unique and beautiful handmade pottery that enhances the beauty of your dining table.

About the author

Written By

William Prince

William Prince

Meet William Prince!

With over 20 years of ceramic artistry experience, William Prince is not just a skilled potter; he’s a passionate guide to your pottery journey. William holds a Fine Arts degree specialized in pottery and he was also nurtured under the guidance of renowned potters. With over two decades of experience, he seamlessly blends tradition with contemporary aesthetics.

William’s inspiration stems from nature’s imperfections, translating them into unique, organic pottery pieces. As a patient and warm-hearted teacher, he’s known for conducting pottery workshops and classes, nurturing talents with his expertise. Join William on “” and let his mastery inspire your own pottery adventure. Uncover the magic of crafting pottery with a trusted mentor who’s dedicated to both the art and the artist.

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